No, not really.
You can swap out parts with other parts, but not rearrange them.
You can have any OS you like, as long as it is within the linux family of OS’es, or at least that is where MineOS is now residing and working. I guess you could (if you have enough knowledge of Java, node, webservers and all that rewrite MineOS somewhat to work on a windows server, but for now it is made to work with a linux host.
In my outline I wrote Linux OS, with turnkey in parantesis since that is the one delivered in the preconfigured ISO’s. It was implied that you might use any Linux OS (Ubuntu, debian, redhat…). I’m not sure if you could tweak MineOS and Node easily to get it running on OSX (Macs) or Unix, but both of them share huge parts of their code and command base with linux.
(BTW: Apache is not a OS, Apache foundation that develops server software. They are mos known for their webserver, but they have a lot of other projects as well…)